However, a rarely considered explanation for gender differences in school achievement from a developmental point of view is self-regulation Duckworth and Seligman, The class teachers of the 22 fifth grade classes were asked to complete questionnaires about those children of their class who took part in the study.
Therefore, two mediation models were tested to investigate whether behavior regulation and emotion regulation mediate the association between gender and school achievement in German and mathematics.
As Hyde pointed out, meta-analyses have consistently shown that there are no significant gender differences in general cognitive abilities.
In a sample of US-American eighth graders, Duckworth and Seligman found that girls' higher school achievement can be explained in part by behavior regulation.
Regarding female students, the tendency to underestimate their performance may be mediated by lower self-confidence [ 5 ] and higher anxiety [ 6 ].
For example, according to the sponsored mobility model of career success, informal networks give male followers access to the valuable resources and support needed to stand out and advance in their careers McDonald, In order to extend the scope of previous studies, we examined whether different aspects of self-regulation i.
Mathematics test performance and mathematics grades were averaged into a mathematics achievement score. Davis suggested that girls are more expected than boys to act according to social rules, which induces girls having more practice and therefore a better ability to regulate their behaviors and emotions.
This study provides further evidence that underestimation in self-assessment among females is observable even in a low-stakes formative objective structured clinical examination facilitated by fellow medical students. Hence, children need to adopt self-regulated learning strategies through goal-setting, strategy use, and self-monitoring to be successful in school Blair,