The united states decision to use

One by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in April resulted in an estimate of 1, casualties, withfatalities.

why the atomic bomb was necessary

Additional bombs were to be delivered as soon as they became available, against whatever Japanese cities remained on the target list. On land, U.

The decision to use the atomic bomb stimson

Japan was split between surrender or fighting to the end. Stalin was not told. They were force-marched back up the peninsula toward trains and a POW camp beyond. Secretary of War Henry Stimson chaired the committee. After nearly 12 weeks of fighting, the United States secured the island on June 21 at a cost of nearly 50, American casualties. In the Ken Burns documentary The War , a veteran Marine pilot of the Okinawa campaign relates his thoughts at the time about invading the home islands: By then, our sense of the strangeness of the Japanese opposition had become stronger. There is no persuasive evidence that any of them did so.

For Truman, the choice whether or not to use the atomic bomb was the most difficult decision of his life. The army, not the Foreign Office, controlled the situation.

Who made the decision to use the atomic bomb against japan

The most tangled problem in this conflict of national perspectives was the future of the Japanese emperor, Hirohito. After returning home, he became convinced that he probably would have been killed if the war had lasted a few months longer. So I rejoiced. Although it had been decided by Prime Minster Churchill and President Roosevelt back at the Casablanca Conference that the Allies would accept only unconditional surrender from the Axis, the Potsdam Declaration does lay out some terms of surrender. The counter-argument, of course, is that fear of losing an election is no justification for using such a weapon. Once secured, Okinawa would be used as a staging area for Operation Torch. With this information and with the perspective of ten years, it may be profitable to look again at the decision that opened the age of atomic warfare. There is support for the bomb even among some Japanese. How and when it should be used had been the subject of high-level debate for months.

Mid-July intelligence estimates placed the number of Japanese soldiers in the main islands at under 2,, but that number increased sharply in the weeks that followed as more units were repatriated from Asia for the final homeland defense. The rationale was the belief that in a democracy, there is only so much that can reasonably be asked of its citizen soldiers and of the voting public.

The Interim Committee, created in Maywas primarily tasked with providing advice to the President on all matters pertaining to nuclear energy.

Reasons for dropping the atomic bomb

On August 9, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, where 80, Japanese people perished. It was a harbinger of things to come. It was the greatest thing that could have happened. The ultimatum he issued from Potsdam on July 26 did not refer specifically to the emperorship. Despite knowing the cause was hopeless, Japan planned a resistance so ferocious, resulting in costs so appalling, that they hoped that the United States would simply call for a cease fire where each nation would agree to stop fighting and each nation would retain the territory they occupied at the time. Moreover, regular incendiary bombing raids were destroying huge portions of one city after another, food and fuel were in short supply, and millions of civilians were homeless. With this information and with the perspective of ten years, it may be profitable to look again at the decision that opened the age of atomic warfare. The target cities were carefully chosen.

However, experience showed that the Japanese did not easily surrender. Regardless, the United States remains the only nation in the world to have used a nuclear weapon on another nation.

truman atomic bomb speech

Some of the leaflets mentioned the terms of surrender offered in the Potsdam Declaration and urged the civilians to convince Japanese government to accept them—an unrealistic expectation to say the least.

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The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb: Arguments in Support